First published in 1980, this book argues that subcultures are formed in defence of collectively experienced problems that arise from defects and contradictions in social structures. Mike Brake looks at the development of post-war youth culture in a sociological context and considers the class base of youth subcultures, showing that they generate a form of collective identity from which an individual identity can be achieved, outside that ascribed by class, education or occupation. Black youth and young females are two groups given special attention here since Brake notes they are prone to particular problems resulting from the racism and sexism inherent in much youth culture.