First published in 1987. Throughout human history, learning a second language has been an important part of the educational process. From ancient times to the present, school children have had to struggle to learn a second language (and in many cases third and fourth languages). To be educated meant to know a language other than the language of one's family and community. The contemporary American educational system is one of the few in recorded history that allows its products to remain monolingual.

chapter 1|25 pages

Second-Language Teaching and Learning

chapter 5|37 pages

Instructional Practices

chapter 7|18 pages

Individual Difference Variables

chapter 8|20 pages

Social Factors

chapter 9|22 pages


chapter 10|22 pages


chapter 11|13 pages