Walter Kaufmann completed this, the third and final volume of his landmark trilogy, shortly before his death in 1980. The trilogy is the crowning achievement of a lifetime of study, writing, and teaching. This final volume contains Kaufmann's tribute to Sigmund Freud, the man he thought had done as much as anyone to discover and illuminate the human mind. Kaufmann's own analytical brilliance seems a fitting reflection of Freud's, and his acute commentary affords fitting company to Freud's own thought.

Kaufmann traces the intellectual tradition that culminated in Freud's blending of analytic scientific thinking with humanistic insight to create "a poetic science of the mind." He argues that despite Freud's great achievement and celebrity, his work and person have often been misunderstood and unfairly maligned, the victim of poor translations and hostile critics. Kaufmann dispels some of the myths that have surrounded Freud and damaged his reputation. He takes pains to show how undogmatic, how open to discussion, and how modest Freud actually was.

Kaufmann endeavors to defend Freud against the attacks of his two most prominent apostate disciples, Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung. Adler is revealed as having been jealous, hostile, and an ingrate, a muddled thinker and unskilled writer, and remarkably lacking in self-understanding. Jung emerges in Kaufmann's depiction as an unattractive, petty, and envious human being, an anti-Semite, an obscure and obscurantist thinker, and, like Adler, lacking insight into himself. Freud, on the contrary, is argued to have displayed great nobility and great insight into himself and his wayward disciples in the course of their famous fallings-out.

part I|2 pages

Freud and His Poetic Science

chapter 7|7 pages

Freud in translation.

chapter 12|4 pages

Freud versus Goethe, Kant, and Hegel.

part II|2 pages

Adler's Break with Freud

chapter 36|14 pages

A portrait of Adler.

chapter 37|3 pages

Freud's and Adler's years together.

chapter 40|6 pages

Roazen and the Tausk case.

chapter 41|7 pages

Roazen and Adler's break with Freud.

chapter 49|6 pages

Adler versus Nietzsche.

chapter 52|5 pages

Freud and Vienna.

part III|2 pages

. Discovering Jung's Mind

chapter 57|7 pages

Friendship and break described briefly.

chapter 60|18 pages

November 11, 1912, to January 6, 1913.

chapter 62|6 pages

Three dreams and two fantasies.

chapter 67|3 pages

(3) Bitterness.

chapter 68|7 pages

(4) A Jewish psychology.

chapter 70|8 pages

Jung as guru. The mysterious East. Rome.

part IV|2 pages

Jung's Answer to Job

part V|2 pages

Mind and Mask

chapter 81|4 pages

Emotions, labels, character traits.

chapter 85|5 pages

Theories and shortcuts.