In 1978 and 1979 revolutions in Afghanistan and Iran marked a shift in the balance of power in South West Asia and the world. Then, as now, the world is once more aware that tribalism is no anachronism in a struggle for political and cultural self-determination. This books provides historical and anthropological perspectives necessary to the eventual understanding of the events surrounding the revolutions.

chapter 1|82 pages


chapter 4|42 pages

Tribes and states in the Khyber, 1838-42

chapter 5|20 pages

Tribes and states in waziristan

chapter 9|30 pages

Iran and the Qashqai tribal confederacy

chapter 15|13 pages

The Tribal Society and its enemies

chapter 16|5 pages

Tribe and state: Some concluding remarks