This thesis examines the doctrinal grounds and different approaches to working out this "new Buddhist tradition," a startling contrast to the teachings of non-violence and compassion which have made Buddhism known as a religion of peace. In scores of articles as war approached in 1936-37, new monks searched and reinterpreted scripture, making controversial arguments for ideas like "compassionate killing" which would justify participating in war.

chapter |14 pages


chapter 1|28 pages

Changing Buddhism in Modern China

chapter 2|34 pages

Buddhism and National Defending

chapter 3|28 pages

Propaganda against Japanese Aggressions

chapter 4|46 pages

Buddhist Participation in the War

chapter 5|26 pages

Buddhism in Japanese-Occupied Areas

chapter 6|20 pages

Taixu and Buddhism after the War