This thesis examines the doctrinal grounds and different approaches to working out this "new Buddhist tradition," a startling contrast to the teachings of non-violence and compassion which have made Buddhism known as a religion of peace. In scores of articles as war approached in 1936-37, new monks searched and reinterpreted scripture, making controversial arguments for ideas like "compassionate killing" which would justify participating in war.

chapter |14 pages


chapter Chapter One|28 pages

Changing Buddhism in Modern China

chapter Chapter Two|34 pages

Buddhism and National Defending

chapter Chapter Three|28 pages

Propaganda Against Japanese Aggressions

chapter Chapter Four|46 pages

Buddhist Participation in the War

chapter Chapter Five|26 pages

Buddhism in Japanese-Occupied Areas

chapter Chapter Six|20 pages

Taixu and Buddhism After the War

chapter |16 pages