In July 1979, Nicaragua began a process of profound structural transformation to redistribute power and wealth in order to redress past societal inequities. This book critically examines the planning and implementation of one of the first programs of national transformation-the Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade, an educational effort directly involving almost one-fourth of the country's population. International experts praised the program as an exemplary model for national development and unanimously chose the campaign to receive grand prize in literacy. A vivid combination of anecdote and analysis, Between Struggle and Hope is a study of policymaking and institution building within a revolutionary society. Written by an international adviser to the program, the book provides an insider's look at educational planning and political formation. A critique, it combines the human story of the struggle to create the literacy campaign with a detailed evaluation of program results, both positive and negative. Unique in the literature, it allows the reader to follow firsthand the behind-the-scenes development of an educational campaign designed as part of a national plan of structural transformation and to share the personal concerns, criticisms, and analysis of the program planners. Between Struggle and Hope offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of political change through education and to probe the internal dynamics of revolution.

chapter 1|14 pages

A Twentieth-Century Challenge

chapter 2|26 pages

The Campaign: Context, Purpose, and Goals

chapter 3|30 pages

Organization: From Foundation to Operation

chapter 4|33 pages

Materials and Methods

chapter 5|53 pages


chapter 6|47 pages

The Campaign in Operation

chapter 7|31 pages

Conclusions and Appraisal

chapter Appendix A|4 pages

Methodology and Interviewees

chapter Appendix B|2 pages

General Interview Format