Confining itself to the ancient and traditional state which ended constitutionally in 1912, this book aims to provide an introduction to the history of China. In dealing with Chinese history since the abdication in that year of the last Ch'ing emperor, a completely separate approach seems necessary, in view of that history's complexity, terms of reference, and what is perhaps a quite different structure -though admittedly the origins of the modem state may be sought in the traditional era and past traditions can be regarded as surviving for a time.

chapter 1|23 pages


chapter 2|19 pages


chapter 3|19 pages


chapter 4|98 pages

Polarities and Tensions