The dramatic revelations of environmental catastrophe in the Soviet Union made during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a driving force behind reform in, and later the demise of the communist party-state. But while the Union no longer exists, the independent republics confront the same dilemmas that plagued the Soviet state: Will the goal of econ

chapter 1|27 pages


chapter 2|26 pages

The Air

chapter 3|39 pages

The Water

chapter 4|29 pages

The Land

chapter 5|34 pages

Solid and Hazardous Waste

chapter 8|29 pages

The Environment and Economic Transition