Like any book, this one is part of a dialogue. Over the years, I have asked thousands of questions, of myself and others, and tried to answer some. Out of all this discussion, a written pattern has grown. It is certainly not a definitive pattern. Among those whose words have been woven into it, there are many who might have fashioned it better. There are some who would have selected different colors and textures, or who might have preferred a totally different pattern. I am conscious of their voices and wish that I could adequately present them all. First and foremost are the voices of farmers and other villagers, whose experiences I have tried to understand and represent. A few of them will read this book and decide whether I learned anything from all their patient answers. If they were so inclined, they could tell more about the subject than I ever can.

part Part One|46 pages


chapter 1|19 pages

The Problem

chapter 2|25 pages

The Setting

part Part Two|45 pages

Sugar Production Before Independence

chapter 3|19 pages

Irrigation and Imperialism

chapter 4|24 pages

Peasants Versus Capitalists

part Part Three|91 pages

Malegaon Village, 1900-1950

chapter 5|27 pages

Old Elites and New Entrepreneurs

chapter 6|31 pages

Migration and Economic Mobility

chapter 7|31 pages

The Pattern of Inequality and Mobility

part Part Four|104 pages

Cooperative Sugar, 1950–1985

chapter 8|29 pages

The Politics of Sugar

chapter 9|44 pages

Performance and Impact of a Sugar Co-op

chapter 10|29 pages

Why Do Some Cooperatives Work?

part Part Five|31 pages


chapter 11|29 pages

Revolution from the Middle