In this book sociologist Joe Feagin extends the systemic racism framework in previous Routledge books by developing an innovative concept, the white racial frame. Now more than four centuries old, this white racial frame encompasses not only the stereotyping, bigotry, and racist ideology emphasized in other theories of “race,” but also the visual images, array of emotions, sounds of accented language, interlinking interpretations and narratives, and inclinations to discriminate that are central to the frame’s everyday operations. Deeply imbedded in American minds and institutions, this white racial frame has for centuries functioned as a broad worldview, one essential to the routine legitimation, scripting, and maintenance of systemic racism in the United States. Here Feagin examines how and why this white racial frame emerged in North America, how and why it has evolved socially over time, which racial groups are framed within it, how it has operated in the past and present for both white Americans and Americans of color, and how the latter have long responded with strategies of resistance that include enduring counter-frames. In this third edition, Feagin has included much new data from many recent research studies on framing issues related to white, black, Native, Latino/a, and Asian Americans, and on society generally. The book also includes a more extensive discussion of the impact of the white frame on popular culture, including on video games, movies, and television programs, as well as a discussion of the white racial frame’s significant impacts on public policymaking on immigration, the environment, health care, and crime and imprisonment issues.

chapter |9 pages


chapter Chapter 1|26 pages

The White Racial Frame

chapter Chapter 2|16 pages

Building the Racist Foundation

Colonialism, Genocide, and Slavery

chapter Chapter 3|19 pages

Creating a White Racial Frame

The First Century

chapter Chapter 4|31 pages

Extending the White Frame

The Eighteenth Century to the Twentieth Century

chapter Chapter 5|41 pages

The Contemporary White Racial Frame

chapter Chapter 6|25 pages

The Frame in Everyday Operation

chapter Chapter 7|27 pages

The Frame in Institutional Operation

Bureaucratization of Oppression

chapter Chapter 8|43 pages


Americans of Color

chapter Chapter 9|42 pages

Toward a Truly Multiracial Democracy

Thinking and Acting Outside the White Frame