In this work, the author reveals the hidden world of the "laogaidui" - the PRC's labour reform camps. The author, a political prisoner for 19 years, takes the reader through the harsh reality found in the camps, describing their ideological origins, complex structures and living conditions. What makes the PRC's "laogaidui" unique, according to Wu, is the essential contribution to China's GNP of the commodities produced by the prisoners and the camps' concomitant indispensability to the nation's economic health.

chapter |54 pages


chapter |27 pages

Convicted Labor Reform (Laogai)

chapter |27 pages

Reeducation Through Labor (Laojiao)

chapter |11 pages

Forced Job Placement (Jiuye)

chapter |24 pages

Labor Reform Under Deng Xiaoping

chapter |3 pages