This book presents the sharp regional diff erences within the integrating European continent. Four regions – Northwestern Europe, Southern Europe, Central Europe, and Eastern-Southeastern Europe – represent high, medium, and relatively less-developed levels of economic advancement. These disparities have emerged as a result of historical diff erences that produced and reinforced cultural and behavioral diff erences.

The author examines the distinctions between the regions, looks at how these differences transpired and became so retrenched, and answers the question of why some countries were able to elevate to higher levels of economic development while others could not. This book is unique in that it provides a timely historical analysis of the main causes of the most pressing conflicts in Europe today. Readers will come away from this book with a deeper understanding of the sharp divergence in economic standing between the four different regions of Europe, as well as knowledge about how institutional corruption and other cultural features exacerbated these variations. The book also offers a better understanding of major European Union confl icts between member countries and between member and nonmember countries, as well as the rise of autocratic regimes in certain countries. The book begins with a short history of European integration throughout European civilization and then goes on to discuss the modern reality of integration and attempts to homogenize the Continent that divided into four different macro-regions.

It will primarily appeal to scholars, researchers and students studying Europe from various fi elds, including economics, business, history, political science, and sociology, as well as a general readership interested in Europe’s past, present, and future.

chapter |17 pages


Europe, its civilizations and historical regions

chapter 1|38 pages

Long historical roads toward regional differences within Europe

Four regions in 1913

chapter 2|21 pages

A radically changed world, yet unchanged regional division

Four regions in early-21st-century Europe

chapter 3|40 pages

What preserves regional differences?

The social, economic, and cultural factors

chapter 4|31 pages

The most developed core of Europe

The northwest

chapter 5|28 pages

The Mediterranean-Irish region

Catching up with the West but burdened with remnants of a peripheral past

chapter 6|36 pages

Central Europe and the Baltics

Trapped in middle-income periphery?

chapter 7|46 pages

The Russia-Turkey-Balkans low-income region

Outside Europe?

chapter |7 pages