Drawing on a range of disciplinary approaches, this monograph explores the drivers of urban development.

Through an evolutionary lens, cities are shown to find a development path amidst an ever-changing landscape, sometimes facing extreme externalities such as wars and economic crises. Key themes covered include urban growth, decentralization, path dependence, institutional change, governance, entrepreneurship and culture. Detailed case studies of the history-rich metropolises of Berlin, Budapest and Warsaw allow the author to examine the adaptive abilities of cities in flux, and draw conclusions with broader international relevance.

This monograph will be valuable reading for advanced students and researchers in urban economics, evolutionary economics, institutional economics and Central European studies.

1. What is a City? 2. Strength in Numbers: How to Measure Urban growth, Development and Success 3. Drivers of Urban Change and Adaptation 4. Players on the Urban Stage: Power, Influence and Decision-making 5. Cities More Lasting than Bronze: A New Chapter in the Urban History of Survival