This book identifies population as a central issue of polity and examines its links to ideas of state and citizenship. It explores the relationship between the state, citizenship and polity by reexamining processes related to census enumeration, population and citizen registers, and the politics of classificatory governmentality.

Religion, ethnicity, caste and political class play a key role in determining community identities and the relationship between an individual and the state. Contextualizing the arguments and controversies around the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019 (CAA 2019) and the National Register of Citizens (NRC), the book examines the processes of inclusion or exclusion of minorities and migrants as citizens in India. It focusses on the classification of irregular and refugee migration since independence in India, especially in the state of Assam. The book highlights how political imagination, as a theoretical framework, shapes the processes and strategies for enumeration and classification and thereby the idea of citizenship. Underlining the relationship between instruments of government, political mobilization and the resurgence of communal polarization, it also offers suggestions for alternative constructions of citizenship and an inclusive state.

This book will be useful for students and researchers of population studies, population geography, migration studies, sociology, political science, social anthropology, law and journalism. It will also be of interest to policy makers, journalists, as well as NGOs and CSOs.

chapter Chapter 1|19 pages

Population, state and citizenship

An introduction

chapter Chapter 2|20 pages

The statecraft and citizenship

Census, NPR and NRC

chapter Chapter 3|17 pages

Religious classification and governmentality

chapter Chapter 4|15 pages

Refugees, irregular migrants and non-citizens

chapter Chapter 5|17 pages

Irregular migration and NRC

The Assam experiment

chapter Chapter 6|56 pages

Evolution of the Citizenship Act

chapter Chapter 7|16 pages

Political imagination and citizenship

A way forward