As the second volume of a three- volume set on the indigenization of Christianity in modern China, this book focuses on Christianity’s encounter with the turbulent history of China in the 1920s, the responses of the Chinese Church to criticisms and the backlash against Christianity.

Over the course of its growth in modern China, Christianity has faced many twists and turns in attempting to embed itself in Chinese society and indigenous culture. This three- volume set delineates the genesis and trajectory of Christianity’s indigenization in China over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, highlighting the actions of Chinese Christians and the relationship between the development of Christianity in China and modern Chinese history. This volume re- examines the Condemning Christianity Movement and discusses debates and reflections on the independence and indigenization of the Chinese Church, religious education and the relationship of Christianity with imperialism. The author also demonstrates how historical events and intellectual trends during the period fashioned local believers’ national consciousness and their views on foreign missionary societies, imperialism and patriotism, figuring prominently in Chinese Christians’ domination of the Church.

The book will appeal to scholars and students interested in the history of Christianity in China and modern Chinese history.