Fully updated for its fourth edition, The Biological Basis of Clinical Observations provides readers with the understanding needed to perform clinical observations, make accurate judgements about the patient’s condition and make good decisions concerning patient care.

This essential textbook supports safe and effective clinical practice by explaining the techniques involved in making clinical observations, alongside the biological knowledge which gives them meaning. For each topic, it explains the pathological basis for variations in observed results, focusing on relevant anatomy and physiology, genetics and pharmacology, and the basic principles of care. A greatly expanded chapter on pharmacology reflects the increased importance of this subject in the nursing curriculum. Topics discussed include:

  • temperature
  • cardiovascular observations
  • respiratory observations
  • urinary and bowel observations
  • neurological observations • nutrition
  • fluid balance
  • skin
  • pharmacology
  • pregnancy.

The Biological Basis of Clinical Observations is a unique text which integrates explanations of essential procedures with the biological knowledge that underpins practice. It is essential reading for all nursing and healthcare students preparing for clinical practice.

chapter 1|22 pages


chapter 2|19 pages

Cardiovascular observations (I)

The pulse and electrocardiogram (ECG)

chapter 3|23 pages

Cardiovascular observations (II)

Blood pressure

chapter 4|32 pages

Cardiovascular observations (III)

Blood tests

chapter 5|24 pages

Respiratory observations

chapter 6|14 pages

Fluid and electrolyte balance

chapter 7|20 pages


chapter 8|25 pages

Elimination (I)

Urinary observations

chapter 9|17 pages

Elimination (II)

Digestive observations

chapter 10|22 pages


chapter 11|28 pages

Neurological observations (I)


chapter 12|21 pages

Neurological observations (II)


chapter 13|19 pages

Neurological observations (III)


chapter 14|24 pages

Neurological observations (IV)


chapter 16|10 pages

Physiological changes occurring in pregnancy