Palmyra: A History examines Palmyra, the city in the Syrian oasis of Tadmur, from its beginnings in the Bronze Age, through the classical period and its discovery and excavation, to the present day. It aims at reconstructing Palmyra’s past from literary accounts – classical and post-classical – as well as material evidence of all kinds: inscriptions, coins, art and of course the remains of Palmyra’s monumental architecture.

After exploring the earliest inhabitation of Tadmur, the volume moves through the Persian and Hellenistic periods, to the city’s zenith. Under the Romans, Palmyra was unique among the cities of the empire because it became a political factor in its own right in the third century AD, when the Roman military was overpowered by Sassanian invaders and Palmyrene troops stepped in. Sommer’s assessment of Palmyra under Rome therefore considers how Palmyra achieved such an exceptional role in the Roman Near East, before its demise under the Umayyad Empire. The volume also examines the century-long history of archaeological and historical research at Palmyra, from its beginnings under Ottoman rule and the French mandate in the 1920s to the recent satellite based prospection carried out by German archaeologists. A closing chapter examines the occupation of the site by ISIS during the Syrian conflict, and the implications of the destruction there on the ruins, the archaeological finds and future investigations, and heritage in Syria more broadly.

Palmyra offers academics, students and the interested reader alike the first full treatment in English of this fascinating site, providing a comprehensive account of the city’s origins, rise and fall.

chapter 1|13 pages

Avenues to Palmyra

chapter 2|13 pages

Palmyra before the Palmyrenes

chapter 3|26 pages

From Akkad to Antioch

Syria, the great powers and the rise of a world-system

chapter 4|26 pages

Privata sorte inter duo imperia

Palmyra between Rome and Parthia

chapter 5|27 pages

In the wake of the Empire

chapter 6|33 pages

Palmyra’s war and peace

chapter 7|32 pages

Claiming the Empire

chapter 8|39 pages


Aspects – perspectives

chapter 9|20 pages

Palmyra after the Palmyrenes

chapter 10|36 pages

The end of civilization

Palmyra’s second downfall in the Syrian civil war