Ethics is Nicolai Hartmann's magnum opus on moral philosophy. Volume 1, Moral Phenomena, is concerned with the nature and structure of ethical phenomena. Volume 2, Moral Values, describes all values as forming a complex and imperfectly known system. The final volume, Moral Freedom, deals with one of the oldest puzzles in both philosophy and theology: the individual's freedom of the will.Freedom of the will is a necessary precondition of morality. Without it, there is no morality in the full sense of the word. In Moral Freedom Hartmann sets out to refute the determinist view that freedom of the will is impossible. Following Kant, while rejecting his transcendentalism, Hartmann first discusses the tension between causality and the freedom of the will.The tension between the determination by moral values and the freedom of the will is next examined, a crucial issue completely overlooked by Kant and virtually all other modern philosophers, but recognized by the scholastics. Why should we believe in the freedom of the will with regard to the moral values? Are there good reasons for thinking that it exists? If freedom of the will vis-a-vis the moral values does exist, how is it to be conceived? Moral Freedom concludes with the famous postscript on the antinomies between ethics and religion.Hartmann's Ethics may well be the most outstanding treatise on moral philosophy in the twentieth century. Andreas Kinneging's introduction sheds light on the volume's continuing relevance.

part III|1 pages

The Problem of the Freedom of the Will

part I|33 pages

Preliminary Critical Questions

chapter I|10 pages

The Connections of the Problem

chapter III|14 pages

Erroneous Conceptions of Freedom

part II|48 pages

The Causal Antinomy

chapter IV|9 pages

The Significance of Kant's Solution

chapter V|11 pages

Determinism and Indeterminism

chapter VI|13 pages

Determinism, Causal and Finalistic

part III|36 pages

The Antinomy of the Ought

chapter VIII|10 pages

Criticism of the Kantian Doctrine of Freedom

chapter X|9 pages

The Present State of the Problem

part IV|68 pages

Ethical Phenomena, Their Efficacy as Proofs

chapter XI|6 pages

“Proofs” of Metaphysical Objects

chapter XIII|18 pages

Responsibility and Accountability

chapter XIV|7 pages

The Consciousness of Guilt

chapter XV|3 pages

Supplementary Groups of Facts

chapter XVI|21 pages

Ought and the Will

part V|46 pages

Ontological Possibility of Personal Freedom

chapter XVIII|18 pages

Solution of the Ought-Antinomy

chapter XIX|18 pages

Problems Still Unsolved