Accurate clinical observations are fundamental to competent and safe healthcare practice. The Biological Basis of Clinical Observations gives readers the understanding needed to perform clinical observations accurately, make accurate judgements about the patient’s condition and make accurate decisions concerning patient care.

This useful textbook integrates clear explanations of the techniques involved in making clinical observations, alongside the biological knowledge which gives them meaning. For each topic, it explains the pathological basis for variations in observed results, focusing on relevant anatomy and physiology, genetics and pharmacology, and the basic principles of care. In addition to new chapters on blood tests and pregnancy, the text has been updated throughout. It now incorporates increased coverage of paediatrics, movement and the musculo-skeletal system, the lymphatic system, pregnancy, diabetes, homeostasis and infection, among other areas.

Topics discussed include:

  • temperature
  • cardiovascular observations
  • respiratory observations
  • urinary and bowel observations
  • neurological observations
  • nutrition
  • fluid balance
  • skin
  • drug side effects, interactions and allergies.

The Biological Basis of Clinical Observations is a unique text which integrates explanations of essential procedures with the biological knowledge that underpins practice. It is essential reading for all nursing and health students preparing for clinical practice.

chapter 1|24 pages


chapter 2|16 pages

Cardiovascular observations (I)

The pulse and electrocardiogram (ECG)

chapter 3|19 pages

Cardiovascular observations (II)

Blood pressure

chapter 4|35 pages

Cardiovascular observations (III)

Blood tests

chapter 5|24 pages

Respiratory observations

chapter 6|15 pages

Fluid balance

chapter 7|22 pages


chapter 8|26 pages

Elimination (I)

Urinary observations

chapter 9|16 pages

Elimination (II)

Digestive observations

chapter 10|23 pages


chapter 11|28 pages

Neurological observations (I)


chapter 12|21 pages

Neurological observations (II)


chapter 13|19 pages

Neurological observations (III)


chapter 14|24 pages

Neurological observations (IV)