Originally published in 1996. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is one of the most effective multilateral environmental agreements currently in existence. Established to control the production and consumption of CFCs and other ozone-depleting chemicals, the Protocol is an important example of an agreement which places restrictions on international trade in the interests of the global environmental – a feature which may become common in future treaties.

This report examines the development, effectiveness and future of the trade provisions of the ozone regime, concluding that they have contributed significantly to its success in attracting signatories and in limiting ozone depletion. Issues considered include the compatibility of the trade provisions and the GATT, trade restrictions and developing countries, and the new problems of non-compliance and illegal trade in CFCs.

chapter 1|4 pages

International trade and the environment

chapter 2|34 pages

Protecting the ozone layer

chapter 3|26 pages

Trade and the Montreal Protocol

chapter 6|16 pages

New problems for the ozone regime

chapter 7|4 pages

Conclusions and lessons for the future