Introductory logic is generally taught as a straightforward technical discipline. In this book, John MacFarlane helps the reader think about the limitations of, presuppositions of, and alternatives to classical first-order predicate logic, making this an ideal introduction to philosophical logic for any student who already has completed an introductory logic course.

The book explores the following questions. Are there quantificational idioms that cannot be expressed with the familiar universal and existential quantifiers? How can logic be extended to capture modal notions like necessity and obligation? Does the material conditional adequately capture the meaning of 'if'—and if not, what are the alternatives? Should logical consequence be understood in terms of models or in terms of proofs? Can one intelligibly question the validity of basic logical principles like Modus Ponens or Double Negation Elimination? Is the fact that classical logic validates the inference from a contradiction to anything a flaw, and if so, how can logic be modified to repair it? How, exactly, is logic related to reasoning? Must classical logic be revised in order to be applied to vague language, and if so how? Each chapter is organized around suggested readings and includes exercises designed to deepen the reader's understanding.

Key Features:

  • An integrated treatment of the technical and philosophical issues comprising philosophical logic
  • Designed to serve students taking only one course in logic beyond the introductory level
  • Provides tools and concepts necessary to understand work in many areas of analytic philosophy
  • Includes exercises, suggested readings, and suggestions for further exploration in each chapter

chapter 1|33 pages


chapter 2|31 pages


chapter 3|30 pages

Modal Logic

chapter 4|25 pages


chapter 5|21 pages

Logical Consequence via Models

chapter 6|24 pages

Logical Consequence via Proofs

chapter 7|22 pages

Relevance, Logic, and Reasoning

chapter 8|24 pages

Vagueness and the Sorites Paradox