First published in 1978. For the non-mathematician, however, even the simpler introductory books on statistics often raise considerable problems. In this second edition First, some attention has been given to the problem of the transformation of data in order to reinforce the appreciation of the need for normally-distributed data for the use of so many techniques. Secondly, the use of probability paper, at least in simple terms, has been introduced to illustrate the ways in which the labour of probability assessments can be circumvented. Thirdly, radical changes have been made, plus considerable expansion added, to the theme of non-parametric testing, to provide a more systematic approach to what is a most important group of possible techniques for geographers. Fourthly, change and expansion are also reflected in the sections on correlation and regression, including some simple consideration of curvilinear relationships and the presentation of computational techniques more geared to the use of desk calculators rather than long-hand methods. Finally, the bibliography has also been expanded, to incorporate a wider range of books on techniques and a selection of research papers using such techniques in a geographical (or near-geographical) context.

chapter 1|6 pages

Characteristics of data

chapter 2|9 pages

Taking a sample

chapter 3|12 pages

Measures of central tendency

chapter 4|21 pages

Deviation and variability

chapter 6|22 pages

Probability assessments

chapter 7|29 pages

Sample characteristics and sampling error

chapter 8|34 pages

The comparison of sample values-I

(Non-parametric tests)

chapter 9|29 pages

The comparison of sample values-II

(Parametric tests)

chapter 10|14 pages

Methods of correlation

chapter 11|18 pages

Regression lines and confidence limits

chapter 12|17 pages

Fluctuations and trends

chapter 13|4 pages

The way ahead