Highlighting the "mass" nature of interwar European fascism has long become commonplace. Throughout the years, numerous critics have construed fascism as a phenomenon of mass society, perhaps the ultimate expression of mass politics. This study deconstructs this long-standing perception. It argues that the entwining of fascism with the masses is a remarkable transubstantiation of a movement which understood and presented itself as a militant rejection of the ideal of mass politics, and indeed of mass society and mass culture more broadly conceived. Thus, rather than "massifying" society, fascism was the culmination of a long effort on the part of the élites and the middle-classes to de-massify it. The perennially menacing mass – seen as plebeian and insubordinate – was to be drilled into submission, replaced by supposedly superior collective entities, such as the nation, the race, or the people. Focusing on Italian fascism and German National Socialism, but consulting fascist movements and individuals elsewhere in interwar Europe, the book incisively shows how fascism is best understood as ferociously resisting what Elias referred to as "the civilizing process" and what Marx termed "the social individual." Fascism, notably, was a revolt against what Nietzsche described as the peaceful, middling and egalitarian "Last Humans."

chapter |28 pages


The Masses and the Fascist Political Unconscious

chapter 1|34 pages

The Rise of the Last Human I

The Formation of Mass Society

chapter 2|76 pages

The Rise of the Last Human II

The Opposition to Mass Society

chapter 3|79 pages

Fascism and Mass Politics

chapter 4|60 pages

Fascism and Mass Society I

Cultural Questions

chapter 5|42 pages

Fascism and Mass Society II

Consumption, Leisure, Americanism

chapter 6|34 pages

The Wandering Womb

Fascism and Gender

chapter 7|46 pages

The Wandering Jew

National Socialism and Antisemitism

chapter 8|21 pages


Nietzsche, the Left and the Last Humans