This book celebrates the relaunch of the African Pollen Database, presents state-of-the-art of modern and ancient pollen data from sub-Saharan Africa, and promotes Open Access science. Pollen grains are powerful tools for the study of past vegetation dynamics because they preserve well within sedimentary deposits and have a huge diversity in ornamentation that allows different taxa to be determined. The reconstruction of past vegetation from the examination of ancient pollen records thus can be used to characterize the nature of past landscapes (e.g. abundance of forests vs. grasslands), provide insights into changes in biodiversity, and gain empirical evidence of vegetation response to climatic change and human activity. In this, the 35th Volume of "Palaeoecology of Africa", we bring together new data and extensive synthetic reviews to provide novel insights into the relationships between human evolution, human activity, climate change and vegetation dynamics during the Quaternary, the last 2.6 million years.
Current and ongoing climate and land-use change is exerting pressure on modern vegetation formations and threatening the livelihoods and wellbeing of many peoples in Africa. In this book the focus is on the Quaternary because it is during this geological period that the modern vegetation formations developed into their current configurations against a backdrop of high magnitude global climate change (glacial-interglacial cycles), human evolution, and a growing human land-use footprint. In this book the latest information is presented and collated from around the African continent to parameterize past vegetation states, identify the drivers of vegetation change, and assess the vegetation resilience to change. To achieve this research from two broad themes are covered: (i) the present is the key to the past (i.e. studies which improve our understanding of modern environments so that we can better interpret evidence from the past), and (ii) the past is the key to the future (i.e. studies which unlock information on how and why vegetation changed in the past so one can better anticipate trajectories of future change).
This Open Access book will provide a strong foundation for future research exploring past ecological, environmental and climatic change within Africa and the surrounding islands. The book is organized regionally (covering western, eastern, central, and southern Africa) and it contains specialized articles focused on particular topics (such as modern pollen-vegetation relationships and fire as a driver of vegetation change), as well as regional and pan-African syntheses drawing together decades of research to assess key scientific questions (including the role of climate in driving vegetation change and the role of vegetation change in human evolution). These articles will be useful to students and teachers from high school to the highest level of university who are interested in the origins and dynamics of vegetation in Africa. Furthermore, it is also meant to provide societally relevant information that can act as an inspiration for the development of sustainable management practices for the future.

chapter Chapter 1|4 pages

Rise of the Palaeoecology of Africa series

ByLouis Scott
Size: 0.07 MB

chapter Chapter 2|8 pages

The African Pollen Database (APD) and tracing environmental change: State of the Art

ByAnne-Marie Lézine, Sarah J. Ivory, William D. Gosling, Louis Scott
Size: 0.14 MB

chapter Chapter 3|14 pages

Preliminary evidence for green, brown and black worlds in tropical western Africa during the Middle and Late Pleistocene

ByWilliam D. Gosling, Crystal N.H. McMichael, Zoë Groenewoud, Eleonora Roding, Charlotte S. Miller, Adele C.M. Julier
Size: 0.43 MB

chapter Chapter 4|24 pages

Holocene high-altitude vegetation dynamics on Emi Koussi, Tibesti Mountains (Chad, Central Sahara)

ByMichèle Dinies, Lena Schimmel, Philipp Hoelzmann, Stefan Kröpelin, Frank Darius, Reinder Neef
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chapter Chapter 5|14 pages

Timing and nature of the end of the African Humid Period in the Sahel: Insight from pollen data

ByKévin Lemonnier, Anne-Marie Lézine
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chapter Chapter 6|20 pages

Changes in the West African landscape at the end of the African Humid Period

ByAnne-Marie Lézine, Kévin Lemonnier, Martyn P. Waller, Ilham Bouimetarhan, Lydie Dupont
Size: 0.73 MB

chapter Chapter 7|22 pages

Reconstructing vegetation history of the Olorgesailie Basin during the Middle to Late Pleistocene using phytolith data

ByRahab N. Kinyanjui, Michael Meadows, Lindsey Gillson, Marion. K. Bamford, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Richard Potts
Size: 1.20 MB

chapter Chapter 8|20 pages

Sedimentological, palynological and charcoal analyses of the hydric palustrine sediments from the Lielerai-Kimana wetlands, Kajiado, southern Kenya

ByEsther N. Githumbi, Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi, Robert Marchant
Size: 0.82 MB

chapter Chapter 9|8 pages

The new Garba Guracha palynological sequence: Revision and data expansion

ByGraciela Gil-Romera, Mekbib Fekadu, Lars Opgenoorth, David Grady, Henry F. Lamb, Lucas Bittner, Michael Zech, Georg Miehe
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chapter Chapter 10|22 pages

Lower to Mid-Pliocene pollen data from East African hominid sites, a review

ByRaymonde Bonnefille, Benjamin Bourel
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chapter Chapter 11|26 pages

Ecosystem change and human-environment interactions of Arabia

BySarah J. Ivory, Michèle Dinies, Anne-Marie Lézine
Size: 0.57 MB

chapter Chapter 12|24 pages

The challenge of pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of Holocene plant cover in tropical regions: A pilot study in Cameroon

ByMarie-José Gaillard, Esther Githumbi, Gaston Achoundong, Anne-Marie Lézine, Christelle Hély, Judicaël Lebamba, Laurent Marquer, Florence Mazier, Furong Li, Shinya Sugita
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chapter Chapter 13|18 pages

A Holocene pollen record from Mboandong, a crater lake in lowland Cameroon

ByKeith Richards
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chapter Chapter 15|20 pages

An atlas of southern African pollen types and their climatic affinities

ByManuel Chevalier, Brian M. Chase, Lynne J. Quick, Louis Scott
Size: 1.05 MB

chapter Chapter 16|16 pages

Pollen productivity estimates from KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg, South Africa

ByTrevor R. Hill, Tristan J. Duthie, Jane Bunting
Size: 0.40 MB

chapter Chapter 17|18 pages

Modern pollen-vegetation relationships in the Drakensberg Mountains, South Africa

ByTrevor R. Hill, Jemma M. Finch
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chapter Chapter 18|8 pages

A Late Holocene pollen and microcharcoal record from Eilandvlei, southern Cape coast, South Africa

ByNadia du Plessis, Brian M. Chase, Lynne J. Quick, Michael E. Meadows
Size: 0.46 MB

chapter Chapter 19|8 pages

A c. 650 year pollen and microcharcoal record from Vankervelsvlei, South Africa

ByNadia du Plessis, Brian M. Chase, Lynne J. Quick, Paul Strobel, Torsten Haberzettl, Michael E. Meadows
Size: 0.41 MB

chapter Chapter 20|8 pages

Pollen records of the 14th and 20th centuries AD from Lake Tsizavatsy in southwest Madagascar

ByEstelle Razanatsoa, Lindsey Gillson, Malika Virah-Sawmy, Stephan Woodborne
Size: 0.42 MB

chapter Chapter 21|32 pages

Modern pollen studies from tropical Africa and their use in palaeoecology

ByAdele C.M. Julier, Saúl Manzano, Estelle Razanatsoa, Andriantsilavo H.I. Razafimanantsoa, Esther Githumbi, Donna Hawthorne, Glory Oden, Lisa Schüler, Monique Tossou, Jane Bunting
Size: 0.34 MB

chapter Chapter 22|24 pages

Vegetation response to millennial- and orbital-scale climate changes in Africa: A view from the Ocean

ByIlham Bouimetarhan, Lydie Dupont, Hanane Reddad, Asmae Baqloul, Anne-Marie Lézine
Size: 0.90 MB
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chapter Chapter 24|14 pages

The role of palaeoecology in conserving African ecosystems

ByLindsey Gillson
Size: 0.17 MB