Rock salt formations have long been recognized as a valuable resource - not only for salt mining but for construction of oil and gas storage caverns and for isolation of radioactive and other hazardous wastes. Current interest is fast expanding towards construction and re-use of solution-mined caverns for storage of renewable energy in the form of hydrogen, compressed air and other gases. Evaluating the long term performance and safety of such systems demands an understanding of the coupled mechanical behavior and transport properties of salt. This volume presents a collection of 60 research papers defining the state-of-the-art in the field. Topics range from fundamental work on deformation mechanisms and damage of rock salt to compaction of engineered salt backfill. The latest constitutive models are applied in computational studies addressing the evolution and integrity of storage caverns, repositories, salt mines and entire salt formations, while field studies document ground truth at multiple scales. The volume is structured into seven themes:

  • Microphysical processes and creep models
  • Laboratory testing
  • Geological isolation systems and geotechnical barriers
  • Analytical and numerical modelling
  • Monitoring and site-specific studies
  • Cavern and borehole abandonment and integrity
  • Energy storage in salt caverns

The Mechanical Behavior of Salt X will appeal to graduate students, academics, engineers and professionals working in the fields of salt mechanics, salt mining and geological storage of energy and wastes, but also to researchers in rock physics in general.

part |115 pages

Theme 1: Microphysical processes and creep models

Size: 3.01 MB

chapter |10 pages

Grain-boundary processes and semibrittle behavior of salt-rock

ByJihui Ding, Frederick M. Chester, Judith S. Chester, Xianda Shen, Chloé Arson
Size: 5.70 MB

chapter |13 pages

Mechanisms of dilatancy in rock salt at the grain-scale and implications for the dilatancy boundary

ByB.G.A. van Oosterhout, S.J.T. Hangx, C.J. Spiers
Size: 2.63 MB

chapter |8 pages

A review of frictional sliding on brine-penetrated faults in salt

ByAndré Niemeijer, Martijn van den Ende, Chris Marone, Derek Elsworth, Chris Spiers
Size: 4.73 MB

chapter |11 pages

Microstructural evolution of glacier salt from the Kuh-e-Namak salt diapir, Iran

ByJulia Schmitz, Prokop Závada, Janos L. Urai
Size: 23.82 MB

chapter |11 pages

A threshold stress for pressure solution creep in rock salt: Model predictions vs. observations

ByB.G.A. van Oosterhout, S.J.T. Hangx, C.J. Spiers
Size: 3.19 MB

chapter |10 pages

Coupled mechanical-chemical modeling of compaction of salt at the microscale

ByMengsu Hu, Carl I. Steefel, Jonny Rutqvist
Size: 8.35 MB
Size: 4.01 MB

chapter |10 pages

4D microtomography of brine-assisted healing processes in deformation-damaged rocksalt: A first look

ByY. Ji, C.J. Spiers, S.J.T. Hangx, J.H.P. de Bresser, M.R. Drury
Size: 12.43 MB
Size: 8.83 MB

chapter |9 pages

Microstructure and permeability of vein-bearing Upper Permian anhydrite rock (Gorleben-Bank, Germany)

ByMichael Mertineit, Michael Schramm, Hua Shao, Benjamin Paul, Jürgen Hesser, Jörg Hammer, Gernold Zulauf
Size: 15.27 MB

part |107 pages

Theme 2: Laboratory testing

chapter |11 pages

Insights from an experimental campaign on rock salt and implications at the cavern scale

ByLaura Blanco-Martín, Mejda Azabou, Ahmed Rouabhi, Faouzi Hadj-Hassen, Grégoire Hévin
Size: 3.87 MB

chapter |11 pages

WEIMOS: Creep of rock salt at low deviatoric stresses

ByChristoph Lüdeling, Ralf-Michael Günther, Andreas Hampel, Junqing Sun-Kurczinski, Ralf Wolters, Uwe Düsterloh, Karl-Heinz Lux, Savaş Yıldırım, Dirk Zapf, Svenja Wacker, Ida Epkenhans, Joachim Stahlmann, Benjamin Reedlunn
Size: 4.41 MB
Size: 2.45 MB

chapter |15 pages

Flat-bedded rock salt – a mechanically anisotropic material?

ByIda Epkenhans, Volker Mintzlaff, Sven Fachinger, Svenja Wacker, Eugen Daumlechner, Joachim Stahlmann
Size: 8.74 MB

chapter |12 pages

WEIMOS: Shear behaviors of bedded salt clay seams and their impact on disposal room porosity

BySteven R. Sobolik, Chet Vignes, Stuart Buchholz, Evan Keffeler, Benjamin Reedlunn
Size: 6.41 MB

chapter |10 pages

Rate-dependent behaviour of fracture propagation in salt rock

ByAndreu Escanellas, Eduardo Cámara, Joaquín Liaudat, Ignacio Carol
Size: 3.37 MB

chapter |10 pages

WEIMOS: Laboratory investigation and numerical simulation of damage reduction in rock salt

ByR. Wolters, J.Q. Sun-Kurczinski, U. Düsterloh, K.H. Lux, R.M. Günther, C. Lüdeling, A. Hampel, S. Yildirim, D. Zapf, S. Wacker, I. Epkenhans, J. Stahlmann, B. Reedlunn
Size: 4.59 MB

chapter |12 pages

Investigation of fluid transport in rock salt under repository-relevant conditions – the PeTroS project

ByChristoph Lüdeling, Dirk Naumann, Wolfgang Minkley
Size: 3.58 MB

chapter |12 pages

Creep behaviour of bischofite, carnallite and mixed bischofite-carnallite-halite salt rock at in situ conditions

ByN. Muhammad, J.H.P. de Bresser, C.J. Peach, C.J. Spiers
Size: 2.71 MB

part |116 pages

Theme 3: Geological isolation systems and geotechnical barriers

chapter |9 pages

Evaluation of current knowledge for building the Safety Case for salt-based repositories

ByJacques Grupa, Thomas Schröder, Kelvin Browning, Arjen Poley
Size: 2.23 MB

chapter |6 pages

Disposal of radioactive waste in rock salt: Long-term research programme

ByJeroen Bartol, Marja Vuorio
Size: 4.12 MB
Size: 5.25 MB

chapter |10 pages

Derivation of a non-local criterion to assess functionality and robustness of rock salt barrier

ByMichael Rahmig, Christian Lerch, Nina Müller-Hoeppe, Mirko Polster, Thomas Schröpfer, Beatrix Stielow
Size: 18.69 MB

chapter |11 pages

Design and performance assessment of engineered barrier systems in a salt repository for HLW/SNF

ByEric Simo, Edward N. Matteo, Kristopher L. Kuhlman, Richard S. Jayne, Paola León Vargas, Philipp Herold, Andree Lommerzheim, Andreas Keller
Size: 8.63 MB

chapter |9 pages

Compaction of crushed salt for safe containment – Overview of phase 2 of the KOMPASS project

ByLarissa Friedenberg, Jeroen Bartol, James Bean, Oliver Czaikowski, Uwe Düsterloh, Ann-Kathrin Gartzke, Suzanne Hangx, Ben Laurich, Christian Lerch, Svetlana Lerche, Johanna Lippmann-Pipke, Wenting Liu, Christoph Lüdeling, Melissa Mills, Nina Müller-Hoeppe, Till Popp, Ole Rabbel, Michael Rahmig, Benjamin Reedlunn, Christopher Rölke, Christopher Spiers, Kristoff Svensson, Jan Thiedau, Bart van Oosterhout, Kornelia Zemke, Juan Zhao
Size: 15.00 MB

chapter |9 pages

Laboratory and numerical analysis for the simulation of crushed salt compaction behavior

ByLarissa Friedenberg, Sebastià Olivella, Uwe Düsterloh
Size: 2.42 MB
Size: 7.60 MB

chapter |14 pages

Crushed salt compaction - a new approach for lab test analysis, physical modeling and numerical simulation

Part 2: Numerical application
ByUwe Düsterloh, Svetlana Lerche, Nachinzorig Saruulbayar
Size: 19.16 MB

chapter |13 pages

Pilot plant tests to demonstrate the functionality of sealing systems made of salt cut bricks

ByU. Düsterloh, S. Lerche, J. Zhao
Size: 28.14 MB

part |124 pages

Theme 4: Analytical and numerical modelling

chapter |10 pages

Deformation patterns in the mechanically stratified evaporites over an active basement fault

ByMarta Adamuszek, Marcin Dabrowski
Size: 17.26 MB
Size: 6.90 MB

chapter |9 pages

Modeling of the 3D stress state of typical salt formations

ByTobias S. Baumann, Boris Kaus, Anton Popov, Janos Urai
Size: 10.08 MB

chapter |12 pages

Unexpected features of salt cavern behavior

ByElizaveta Gordeliy, Pierre Bérest
Size: 4.61 MB

chapter |11 pages

Single-cavern convergence for an Ellis 2-branch power-law model

ByPeter A. Fokker, Jaap N. Breunese
Size: 4.28 MB

chapter |12 pages

Modeling the behavior of underground structures in a rock salt formation: A coupled Finite Element approach

ByT.A. Bui, G. Cammarata, V.C. Kancharla, S. Brasile
Size: 3.46 MB
Size: 4.28 MB

chapter |15 pages

WEIMOS: Simulations of two geomechanical scenarios in rock salt resembling structures at WIPP

ByA. Hampel, C. Lüdeling, R.-M. Günther, J.Q. Sun-Kurczinski, R. Wolters, U. Düsterloh, K.-H. Lux, S. Yildirim, D. Zapf, S. Wacker, I. Epkenhans, J. Stahlmann, B. Reedlunn
Size: 23.76 MB

chapter |10 pages

Investigation of the impact of an additional monitoring level above the disposal level in a radioactive waste repository in rock salt

ByJohann Arne Othmer, Jörg Feierabend, Karl-Heinz Lux, Ralf Wolters
Size: 19.52 MB
Size: 6.17 MB

chapter |10 pages

Preliminary study on thermomechanical modeling for correlation with microacoustic measurements in the Morsleben repository

ByTuanny Cajuhi, Ralf Eickemeier, Sandra Fahland, Jan Thiedau, Diethelm Kaiser, Lars Ceranna
Size: 4.68 MB

part |65 pages

Theme 5: Monitoring and site-specific studies

chapter |9 pages

Progress in the geoscientific exploration of the Asse salt structure as a base for the construction of a new mine for the retrieval of radioactive waste from the Asse II mine

ByLukas Pollok, Alja Saßnowski, Mareike Henneberg, Maximilian Pusch, Volker Gundelach, Tatjana Thiemeyer, Thies Beilecke, Ralf Holländer
Size: 10.75 MB

chapter |12 pages

Development of comprehensive 3D-models for geomechanical stability proof of the operation phase and the planned radioactive waste retrieval in the Asse II mine

ByWolf-Peter Kamlot, Johannes Kupper, Ralf-Michael Günther, Grit Gärtner, Frank Manthee
Size: 11.80 MB

chapter |9 pages

Field evidence of salt fracturing and healing in a MgCl2 cavern field

ByPeter Fokker, Abel Jan Smit, Ad Barth
Size: 9.82 MB

chapter |10 pages

In-situ analysis of cavern convergence and closure in a complex geological and operational setting

ByMax Wippich, Kerstin Künzel, Stefan Meyer, Dirk Zander-Schiebenhöfer
Size: 12.72 MB

chapter |12 pages

Storage of production brine in potash mine rooms: Investigation of rock mechanical feasibility

ByJ.-P. Schleinig, M. Nest, R.-M. Günther, M. Günther, H. Zienert, S. Deppe
Size: 6.24 MB

chapter |11 pages

Study of sylvinite heterogeneous creep characteristics and their influence on shaft stability

ByJ. Kazlouski, M.A. Zhuravkov, S.I. Bogdan
Size: 3.51 MB

part |73 pages

Theme 6: Cavern and borehole abandonment and integrity

Size: 3.90 MB

chapter |8 pages

Integrity of the geological formation barrier - A comprehensive approach for the assessment of salt caverns

ByAlexander Raith, Sven Wille, Birgit Horváth, Dirk Zander-Schiebenhöfer
Size: 4.62 MB

chapter |14 pages

Development of surface deformations above salt caverns depending on the abandonment scenario

ByRené Buzogany, Dirk Zander-Schiebenhöfer, Els Wijermars, Marinus den Hartogh
Size: 8.42 MB

chapter |10 pages

CCC - integrated multiscale study of salt cavern abandonment in the Netherlands

ByTobias S. Baumann, Pierre Bérest, Benoit Brouard, Martijn ter Braack, Marinus den Hartogh, Boris Kaus, Jop Klaver, Paul Oonk, Anton Popov, Joyce Schmatz, Janos L. Urai, Els Wijermars
Size: 16.54 MB
Size: 6.28 MB

chapter |14 pages

Mechanism for the formation of sinkholes above deep salt caverns

ByW. Minkley, C. Lüdeling, A. Taghichian
Size: 10.45 MB

part |69 pages

Theme 1: Microphysical processes and creep models

chapter |9 pages

Underground hydrogen storage in salt caverns in the Netherlands – Storage performance and implications for geomechanical stability​

ByS.F. Van Gessel, R.M. Groenenberg, J. Juez-Larré, R.A.F. Dalman
Size: 3.20 MB

chapter |10 pages

Modelling cyclic injection and withdrawal of gas for subsurface energy storage in salt caverns

ByBrecht Wassing, Remco Groenenberg, Jan ter Heege
Size: 4.67 MB

chapter |13 pages

Long-term operational stability analysis of underground storage in horizontal salt cavern with interlayer

ByJun Jiang, Zhengmeng Hou, Kepeng Hou, Wei Sun, Yanli Fang
Size: 1.39 MB

chapter |13 pages

Energy storage in salt caverns with supercritical CO2

ByW. Minkley, M. Brandt, V. Dostal, J. Stepanek
Size: 11.18 MB

chapter |10 pages

Numerical study of hydrogen storage cavern in thin-bedded rock salt, Anning of China

ByYanli Fang, Zhengmeng Hou, Ye Yue, Qianjun Chen, Jianfeng Liu
Size: 2.50 MB
Size: 8.56 MB