Edited by experts at the leading edge of the development of causal assessment methods for more than two decades, Ecological Causal Assessment gives insight and expert guidance on how to identify cause-effect relationships in environmental systems. The book discusses the importance of asking the fundamental question "Why did this effect happen?" bef

part 1|76 pages

Introduction and Philosophical Foundation

chapter 1|14 pages


BySusan B. Norton, Susan M. Cormier, Glenn W. Suter
Size: 0.67 MB

chapter 2|15 pages

What Is a Cause?

ByGlenn W. Suter
Size: 0.42 MB

chapter 3|14 pages

How Have Causes Been Identified?

ByGlenn W. Suter, Susan M. Cormier
Size: 0.42 MB

chapter 4|18 pages

Characteristics and Evidence of Causation

BySusan M. Cormier, Glenn W. Suter, Susan B. Norton
Size: 1.53 MB

chapter 5|12 pages

Human Cognition and Causal Assessment *

BySusan B. Norton, Leela Rao
Size: 0.43 MB

part 2|12 pages

Conducting Causal Assessments

chapter 6|10 pages

Our Approach for Identifying Causes

BySusan M. Cormier, Susan B. Norton, Glenn W. Suter
Size: 0.46 MB

part 2A|33 pages

Formulating the Problem

chapter 7|10 pages

Defining the Case

BySusan B. Norton, Glenn W. Suter
Size: 0.38 MB

chapter 8|21 pages

Listing Candidate Causes

BySusan B. Norton, Kate Schofield, Glenn W. Suter, Susan M. Cormier
Size: 0.54 MB

part 2B|126 pages

Deriving Evidence

chapter 9|11 pages

Case-Speciflc Observations: Assembling and Exploring Data

BySusan B. Norton, Michael G. McManus
Size: 1.47 MB

chapter 10|18 pages

Case-Specific Observations: Deriving Evidence

BySusan B. Norton, David Farrar, Michael Griffith
Size: 0.58 MB

chapter 11|14 pages

Regional Observational Studies: Assembling and Exploring Data

ByJeroen Gerritsen, Lester L. Yuan, Patricia Shaw-Allen, David Farrar
Size: 0.45 MB

chapter 12|17 pages

Regional Observational Studies: Deriving Evidence

ByJeroen Gerritsen, Lester L. Yuan, Patricia Shaw-Allen, Susan M. Cormier
Size: 0.68 MB

chapter 13|15 pages

Regional Observational Studies: Addressing Confounding

ByDavid Farrar, Laurie C. Alexander, Lester L. Yuan, Jeroen Gerritsen
Size: 0.53 MB

chapter 14|10 pages

Assessment-Speciflc Field Study Designs and Methods

ByRobert B. Brua, Joseph M. Culp, Alexa C. Alexander
Size: 0.41 MB

chapter 15|11 pages

Laboratory Experiments and Microcosms

ByAlexa C. Alexander, Joseph M. Culp, Robert B. Brua
Size: 0.52 MB

chapter 16|7 pages

Mesocosm Studies

ByJoseph M. Culp, Alexa C. Alexander, Robert B. Brua
Size: 0.39 MB

chapter 17|9 pages

Symptoms, Body Burdens, and Biomarkers

ByGlenn W. Suter
Size: 0.40 MB

chapter 18|6 pages

Simulation Models

ByGlenn W. Suter
Size: 0.33 MB

part 2C|56 pages

Forming Conclusions and Using the Findings

chapter 19|20 pages

Forming Causal Conclusions

ByGlenn W. Suter, Susan M. Cormier, Susan B. Norton
Size: 0.47 MB

chapter 20|12 pages

Communicating the Findings

BySusan M. Cormier
Size: 0.44 MB

chapter 21|22 pages

After the Causal Assessment: Using the Findings

BySusan B. Norton, Scot E. Hagerthey, Glenn W. Suter
Size: 0.65 MB

part 3|130 pages

Case Studies

chapter 22|46 pages

Causal Assessment in a Complex Urban Watershed—The Long Creek Case Study *

ByC. Richard Ziegler, Susan B. Norton
Size: 0.95 MB

chapter 23|31 pages

Clear Fork Watershed Case Study: The Value of State Monitoring Programs

ByLei Zheng, Jeroen Gerritsen, Susan M. Cormier
Size: 1.24 MB

chapter 24|12 pages

Northern River Basins Study and the Athabasca River: The Value of Experimental Approaches in a Weight-of-Evidence Assessment

ByAlexa C. Alexander, Patricia A. Chambers, Robert B. Brua, Joseph M. Culp
Size: 0.62 MB

chapter 25|38 pages

Applying CADDIS to a Terrestrial Case: San Joaquin Kit Foxes on an Oil Field

ByGlenn W. Suter, Thomas P. O’Farrell
Size: 1.02 MB