In the last two decades, the quest for a widely accepted definition of social enterprise has been a central issue in a great number of publications.

The main objective of the ICSEM Project on which this book is based was to show that the social enterprise field would benefit much more from linking conceptualisation efforts to the huge diversity of social enterprises than from an additional and ambitious attempt at providing an encompassing definition. Starting from a hypothesis that could be termed "the impossibility of a unified definition", the ICSEM research strategy relied on bottom-up approaches to capture the social enterprise phenomenon in its local and national contexts. This strategy made it possible to take into account and give legitimacy to locally embedded approaches, while simultaneously allowing for the identification of major social enterprise models to delineate the field on common grounds at the international level.

Social Enterprise in Western Europe –the third volume in a series of four ICSEM-based books on social enterprise worldwide – will serve as a key reference and resource for teachers, researchers, students, experts, policy makers, journalists and others who want to acquire a broad understanding of the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship phenomena as they emerge and develop in this region.

chapter |17 pages


Documenting, Theorising, Mapping and Testing the Plurality of SE Models in Western Europe
ByJacques Defourny, Marthe Nyssens, Sophie Adam
Size: 0.14 MB

part I|250 pages

National Overviews of Social Enterprise

chapter 1|16 pages

Unity in Diversity

Exploring the Multiple Facets of the Belgian Social Enterprise Landscape
ByBenjamin Huybrechts, Marthe Nyssens, Jacques Defourny
Size: 0.11 MB

chapter 2|15 pages

Social Enterprise in Denmark

Historical, Contextual and Conceptual Aspects
ByLinda Lundgaard Andersen, Lars Hulgård, Gurli Jakobsen
Size: 0.12 MB

chapter 3|17 pages

A New Typology of Social Enterprise in Finland

Capturing the Diversity
ByHarri Kostilainen, Eeva Houtbeckers, Pekka Pättiniemi
Size: 0.13 MB

chapter 4|16 pages

Social Enterprise in France

At the Crossroads of the Social Economy, Solidarity Economy and Social Entrepreneurship?
ByFrancesca Petrella, Nadine Richez-Battesti, Laurent Fraisse, Jean-Louis Laville, Laurent Gardin
Size: 0.27 MB

chapter 5|17 pages

Social Enterprise in Germany

Between Institutional Inertia, Innovation and Cooperation
ByNicole Göler von Ravensburg, Georg Mildenberger, Gorgi Krlev
Size: 0.14 MB

chapter 6|10 pages

Social Enterprise in Iceland

The Long Journey Towards a Hybrid Welfare Model
BySteinunn Hrafnsdóttir, Ómar H. Kristmundsson
Size: 0.09 MB

chapter 7|19 pages

Social Enterprise in Ireland

State Support Key to the Predominance of Work-Integration Social Enterprise (WISE)
ByPatricia O’Hara, Mary O’Shaughnessy
Size: 0.14 MB

chapter 8|18 pages

Social Enterprise in Italy

A Plurality of Business and Organisational Models
BySimone Poledrini, Carlo Borzaga
Size: 0.13 MB

chapter 9|17 pages

Social Enterprise in the Netherlands

Between Hope and Hype
ByPhilip Marcel Karré
Size: 0.13 MB

chapter 10|16 pages

Social Enterprises in Norway

Models and Institutional Trajectories
ByBernard Enjolras, Jill M. Loga, Lars U. Kobro, Hans A. Hauge
Size: 0.10 MB

chapter 11|18 pages

Social Enterprise in Portugal

Concepts, Contexts and Models
BySílvia Ferreira, Joana Almeida
Size: 0.12 MB

chapter 12|18 pages

Social Enterprise in Spain

From a Diversity of Roots to a Tentative Typology of Models
ByMillán Díaz-Foncea, Esther Villajos, Teresa Savall, Carmen Guzmán, Francisco Javier Santos, Marta Solórzano-García, Chaime Marcuello-Servós, Rafael Chaves-Ávila, Carmen Marcuello
Size: 0.12 MB

chapter 13|17 pages

Social Enterprises in Sweden

Intertextual Consensus and Hidden Paradoxes
ByMalin Gawell
Size: 0.54 MB

chapter 14|18 pages

Social Enterprise Approaches in Switzerland

ByMichaël Gonin, Nicolas Gachet, Philipp Erpf
Size: 0.17 MB

chapter 15|16 pages

Social Enterprise in the UK

Models and Trajectories
ByMike Aiken, Roger Spear, Fergus Lyon, Simon Teasdale, Richard Hazenberg, Mike Bull, Anna Kopec Massey
Size: 0.13 MB

part II|82 pages

Comparative Analyses and Perspectives

chapter 16|17 pages

Social Enterprises in France, Portugal and Spain

Between Path Dependence and Institutional Creation?
ByFrancesca Petrella, Nadine Richez-Battesti, Marta Solórzano-García, Sílvia Ferreira
Size: 0.14 MB

chapter 17|13 pages

Social Enterprise in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands

Where the Old Meets the New
ByPhilip Marcel Karré
Size: 0.11 MB

chapter 18|15 pages

Between Coercive and Mimetic Institutional Isomorphism

Social Enterprise and the Universal Scandinavian Welfare State
ByBernard Enjolras, Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, Jill M. Loga
Size: 0.11 MB

chapter 19|17 pages

How Context Shapes the Character of Cooperative Social Enterprises

Insights from Various Countries
ByNicole Göler von Ravensburg, Richard Lang, Simone Poledrini, Marzena Starnawska
Size: 0.14 MB

chapter 20|18 pages

Testing the Relevance of Major Social Enterprise Models in Western Europe

ByJacques Defourny, Marthe Nyssens, Olivier Brolis
Size: 0.13 MB