In the last two decades, the quest for a widely accepted definition of social enterprise has been a central issue in a great number of publications.

The main objective of the ICSEM Project (on which this book is based) was to show that the social enterprise field would benefit much more from linking conceptualisation efforts to the huge diversity of social enterprises than from an additional and ambitious attempt at providing an encompassing definition. Starting from a hypothesis that could be termed "the impossibility of a unified definition", the ICSEM research strategy relied on bottom-up approaches to capture the social enterprise phenomenon in its local and national contexts. This strategy made it possible to take into account and give legitimacy to locally embedded approaches, while simultaneously allowing for the identification of major social enterprise models to delineate the field on common grounds at the international level.

Social Enterprise in Central and Eastern Europe – the last volume in a series of four ICSEM-based books on social enterprise worldwide — will serve as a key reference and resource for teachers, researchers, students, experts, policy makers, journalists and others who want to acquire a broad understanding of the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship phenomena as they emerge and develop in this region.

chapter |19 pages


Documenting, Theorising, Mapping and Testing the Plurality of SE Models in Central and Eastern Europe
Size: 0.26 MB

part I|178 pages

National Overviews of Social Enterprise

chapter 1|17 pages

Social Enterprises in Bulgaria

Historical and Institutional Perspective
Size: 0.22 MB

chapter 2|16 pages

Social Enterprise in Croatia

Charting New Territories
Size: 0.21 MB
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chapter 5|18 pages

Social Enterprise in Hungary

Concepts, Models and Institutions
Size: 0.23 MB

chapter 7|15 pages

Social Enterprises in Lithuania

Historical Roots and Current Trends
Size: 0.23 MB

chapter 8|14 pages

Social Enterprise in Poland

Institutional and Historical Context
Size: 0.21 MB

chapter 9|17 pages

Institutionalisation of Social Enterprise in Romania

Historical Milestones and SE Models Development
Size: 0.20 MB

chapter 10|15 pages

Social Enterprise in Russia

Developing Social Entrepreneurship Models in the Russian Legal and Socio-economic Context
Size: 0.22 MB
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part II|92 pages

Comparative Analyses and Perspectives

Size: 0.25 MB