In the last two decades, the quest for a widely accepted definition of social enterprise has been a central issue in a great number of publications.

The main objective of the ICSEM Project (on which this book is based) was to show that the social enterprise field would benefit much more from linking conceptualisation efforts to the huge diversity of social enterprises than from an additional and ambitious attempt at providing an encompassing definition. Starting from a hypothesis that could be termed "the impossibility of a unified definition", the ICSEM research strategy relied on bottom-up approaches to capture the social enterprise phenomenon in its local and national contexts. This strategy made it possible to take into account and give legitimacy to locally embedded approaches, while simultaneously allowing for the identification of major social enterprise models to delineate the field on common grounds at the international level.

Social Enterprise in Central and Eastern Europe – the last volume in a series of four ICSEM-based books on social enterprise worldwide — will serve as a key reference and resource for teachers, researchers, students, experts, policy makers, journalists and others who want to acquire a broad understanding of the social enterprise and social entrepreneurship phenomena as they emerge and develop in this region.

chapter |19 pages


Documenting, Theorising, Mapping and Testing the Plurality of SE Models in Central and Eastern Europe
ByJacques Defourny, Melinda Mihály, Marthe Nyssens, Sophie Adam
Size: 0.26 MB

part Part I|178 pages

National Overviews of Social Enterprise

chapter 1|17 pages

Social Enterprises in Bulgaria

Historical and Institutional Perspective
ByTsvetelina Marinova, Elizabeth Yoneva
Size: 0.22 MB

chapter 2|16 pages

Social Enterprise in Croatia

Charting New Territories
ByDavorka Vidović, Danijel Baturina
Size: 0.21 MB

chapter 3|15 pages

Social Enterprise in the Czech Republic

Heritage and New Developments
ByMarie Dohnalová, Durmish Guri, Jaroslava Hrabětová, Kateřina Legnerová, Věnceslava Šlechtová
Size: 0.20 MB

chapter 4|13 pages

The Social Enterprise Phenomenon in the Georgian Context

ByMaya Giorbelidze
Size: 0.19 MB

chapter 5|18 pages

Social Enterprise in Hungary

Concepts, Models and Institutions
ByÉva G. Fekete, László Hubai, Julianna Kiss, Melinda Mihály
Size: 0.23 MB

chapter 6|21 pages

Challenges for Social Enterprises in Latvia

ByHenrijs Kalkis, Lolita Vilka, Lāsma Līcīte-Ķurbe, Ilze Trapenciere, Marta Urbāne
Size: 0.26 MB

chapter 7|15 pages

Social Enterprises in Lithuania

Historical Roots and Current Trends
ByAudronė Urmanavičienė, Eglė Butkevičienė, Philipp Erpf, Agota Giedrė Raišienė
Size: 0.23 MB

chapter 8|14 pages

Social Enterprise in Poland

Institutional and Historical Context
ByAnna Ciepielewska-Kowalik, Marzena Starnawska, Aleksandra Szymańska, Bartosz Pieliński
Size: 0.21 MB

chapter 9|17 pages

Institutionalisation of Social Enterprise in Romania

Historical Milestones and SE Models Development
ByMihaela Lambru, Claudia Petrescu
Size: 0.20 MB

chapter 10|15 pages

Social Enterprise in Russia

Developing Social Entrepreneurship Models in the Russian Legal and Socio-economic Context
ByYury Blagov, Yulia Aray
Size: 0.22 MB

chapter 11|15 pages

The Landscape of Social Enterprise in the Slovak Republic

ByZuzana Polačková
Size: 0.21 MB

part Part II|92 pages

Comparative Analyses and Perspectives

chapter 12|17 pages

The Influence of Historical and Institutional Legacies on Present-Day Social Enterprises in CEE Countries

Lessons From Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Croatia
ByAnna Ciepielewska-Kowalik, Davorka Vidović, Julianna Kiss, László Hubai, Kateřina Legnerová, Marie Dohnalová
Size: 0.21 MB

chapter 13|17 pages

The Role of External Financing in the Development of Social Entrepreneurship in CEE Countries

ByDanijel Baturina, Melinda Mihály, Erila Haska, Anna Ciepielewska-Kowalik, Julianna Kiss, Ariola Agolli, Marija Bashevska, Jana Korunovska Srbijanko, Dina Rakin, Vladimir Radojičić
Size: 0.23 MB

chapter 14|17 pages

Endogenous vs. Exogenous Drivers in the Development of a Social Enterprise Sector

BySlobodan Cvejić, Konstantina Zoehrer, Vardan Urutyan
Size: 0.21 MB

chapter 15|21 pages

Social Enterprises in Rural Areas

A Comparative Study of the Baltic States
ByRoger Evans, Mervi Raudsaar, Lāsma Līcīte-Ķurbe, Eglė Butkevičienė, Philipp Erpf, Audronė Urmanavičienė, Agota Giedrė Raišienė
Size: 0.25 MB

chapter 16|18 pages

Testing the Relevance of Major Social Enterprise Models in Central and Eastern Europe

ByJacques Defourny, Marthe Nyssens, Olivier Brolis
Size: 0.22 MB