Indigenous Invisibility in the City contextualises the significant social change in Indigenous life circumstances and resurgence that came out of social movements in cities. It is about Indigenous resurgence and community development by First Nations people for First Nations people in cities.

Seventy-five years ago, First Nations peoples began a significant post-war period of relocation to cities in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa New Zealand. First Nations peoples engaged in projects of resurgence and community development in the cities of the four settler states. First Nations peoples, who were motivated by aspirations for autonomy and empowerment, went on to create the foundations of Indigenous social infrastructure. This book explains the ways First Nations people in cities created and took control of their own futures. A fact largely wilfully ignored in policy contexts.

Today, differences exist over the way governments and First Nations peoples see the role and responsibilities of Indigenous institutions in cities. What remains hidden in plain sight is their societal function as a social and political apparatus through which much of the social processes of Indigenous resurgence and community development in cities occurred. The struggle for self-determination in settler cities plays out through First Nations people’s efforts to sustain their own institutions and resurgence, but also rights and recognition in cities. This book will be of interest to Indigenous studies scholars, urban sociologists, urban political scientists, urban studies scholars, and development studies scholars interested in urban issues and community building and development.

This book is available for free in PDF format as Open Access from the individual product page at www.routledge.com. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.

chapter Chapter 1|27 pages


Making the invisible visible: the city as a critical space of Indigenous resurgence and community development
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chapter Chapter 2|20 pages

Settler-colonial cities as sites of Indigenous relocation

From removal to relocation
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chapter Chapter 3|24 pages

Indigenous resurgence in settler-colonial cities

From social movements to organisation building
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chapter Chapter 4|24 pages

Indigenous social economies hidden in plain sight

Organisations, community entrepreneuring, development
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chapter Chapter 5|26 pages

A ‘renewed right to urban life’

Reconciliation and Indigenous political agency
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chapter Chapter 6|19 pages

White spaces and white adaptive strategies

Visibility and aesthetic upgrades and Indigenous place and space in the post-industrial city in the neoliberal age
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chapter Chapter 8|17 pages


The wilful inattentiveness to racial inequality in cities: what Black Lives Matter protests reveal about Indigenous invisibility
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