We thank Ekman & Co AB and Gadelius Holding Ltd for their kind and generous support, making this research available online for free.

Lottaz and Ottosson explore the intricate relationship between neutral Sweden and Imperial Japan during the latter’s 15 years of warfare in Asia and in the Pacific. While Sweden’s relationship with European Axis powers took place under the premise of existential security concerns, the case of Japan was altogether different. Japan never was a threat to Sweden, militarily or economically. Nevertheless, Stockholm maintained a close relationship with Tokyo until Japan’s surrender in 1945. This book explores the reasons for that and therefore provides a study on the rationale and the value of neutrality in the Long Second World War.

Sweden, Japan, and the Long Second World War is a valuable resource for scholars of the Second World War and of the history of neutrality.


chapter 1|13 pages


Size: 0.19 MB

chapter 2|15 pages

In the beginning

Early Swedish–Japanese relations
Size: 0.36 MB

chapter 3|32 pages

Trade under protest

A war in all but name
Size: 0.83 MB

chapter 4|31 pages

Fading protest

Total war in China
Size: 0.31 MB

chapter 5|33 pages

Staying relevant

Total war in Europe
Size: 1.34 MB

chapter 6|34 pages

Fully engaged

Total war in the Pacific
Size: 1.65 MB

chapter 7|22 pages

In the end

Widar Bagge, Japan, and the end of World War II
Size: 0.17 MB

chapter 8|6 pages


Size: 0.15 MB