Academic librarianship is a fast-changing profession that reflects the transformation of academic libraries in the recent past. Although the primary responsibility of supporting the parent institution’s teaching, learning, and research mission remains the same, the expertise and skills needed by academic librarians, their work environments, and the actual work they do have all undergone great changes. This entry will discuss the profession of academic librarianship and its history, literature, and associations and will provide information about academic librarians and their demographics, education, work responsibilities, work environments, and careers.