In this entry, we describe the latest results on application of high-density inductively coupled argon (Ar) plasma sputtering for the nanostructuring of IV–VI semiconductors. We analyze the main physical processes that take place during inert gas plasma sputtering of lead chalcogenide layers, evaluate sputtering yields of these materials in the framework of the Sigmund’s model, and present novel approaches to the fabrication of lead chalcogenide nanostructures, such as nanohillocks, nanocones, nanocubes, and high aspect ratio nanowires, using inductively coupled Ar plasma sputtering.