Oleum Carvi, an essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground caraway [Carum carvi (L)] seed, has been mentioned in the textbook of pharmacology more than 120 years ago (Nathnagel and Rossbach 1883). Already then the main constituent of this oil was characterized as a compound with molecular formula C10H14O, isomeric with tymol, having similar chemical properties to some constituents of terpentine oil. Although not all of the above statements occurred to be true, the monoterpene was named carvol after the name of the plant it was first isolated from in 1841. Constant development of analytical and isolation methods enabled organic chemists to characterize precisely most of the individual constituents of Carum carvi, the more so still appearing new aspects of its possible application and utilisation stimulated new interests.