Behavioral and cognitive methods have their original foundation in the psychological disciplines. The methods presented in this section of the handbook generally provide information about the perceptions, cognitive processes, and (potential) response(s) of individuals, although this information may be aggregated from many people. This information can be presented in many different forms and guises, including human errors, human tasks, task times, goals and subgoals, decisions, workload, and user preferences. Overarching and integrating these data are general psychological models of human performance. Three such models have dominated human factors and ergonomics over the past three decades: Norman’s (1986) model of action, Wickens’s (1992) model of multiple attentional resources in information processing, and Neisser’s (1976) model of the perceptual cycle in human ecology. Each of these models is briefly discussed.