Urban flood management strategies have traditionally focused on water originating in the city itself and on protection against local flooding through the provision of a hydraulically efficient drainage system to accommodate the expected increase in storm water discharge. Urban drainage systems comprise a wide spectrum of techniques, which can be categorised as: permeable surfaces, filter strips and swales, infiltration devices and basins and ponds. The greatest potential for flood disasters exists in the populous urban and peri-urban settlements of the globe. The increase in vulnerability of cities to flood disasters arises predominantly from the following factors: systematic degradation of natural ecosystems, increased urban migration and unplanned occupation and unsustainable planning and building practices. Flood-proofing techniques comprise an arsenal of engineering options to protect buildings and infrastructure from flood damage and to keep flood water away from damageable properties. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.