Finite element techniques and modal testing lead to models capable of simulating the vibrational response of passenger cars due to forces input through the tires. These techniques are well advanced, offering very useful solutions if the applied forces are known.

The objective of this work is the development of a tire model capable of supplying good estimates of the magnitude and frequency of forces applied to the wheel spindle during tire/rough-road interactions. This paper presents testing and calculations which show that a modified version of the so-called radial spring model is very useful for this purpose. But the paper also indicates that further work is required to aid in the understanding of high speed impacts because the changing radius of the tire causes longitudinal slip with corresponding potentially large longitudinal forces.