This chapter uses the term captive animal to indicate animals held in confinement, including those in oceanariums, commercial farms, research institutions, and head-start programs. It describes some of the health and disease problems commonly observed in both wild and captive sea turtles. Only those problems with high morbidity and mortality rates or those syndromes which are commonly noted are included. The chapter discusses the health problems that are grouped according to etiology. In cases where the cause of a disease process is unproven or there are multiple factors involved in the pathogenesis, it describes the disease concerning the primary or most probable agent. Captive sea turtles have been fed a variety of diets and held under a variety of conditions. They have been successfully raised, maintained, and propagated on commercial pelleted turtle food, modified pelleted trout ration, and balanced gelatin diets.