Mycock and his colleagues show that so-called storage fungal species present in the seeds/seedlings may be systemically transmitted to the next seed generation. Those authors have suggested that the term "seed-associated mycoflora" is more appropriate than the traditional categorization. However, because of its relevance to much of what has been published, the categorization of seed-associated mycoflora as field or storage species is used below where appropriate. Optimal storage conditions, that are seed storage containers that are free of pests and that are maintained at low temperatures and relative humidities, are economically precluded for the average farmer, and particularly for subsistence farmers. Even under ideal conditions, stored seeds will degenerate, and this is primarily due to inherent deterioration. The seed-associated fungi are implicated in vigor and viability loss of planting stocks; in the degradation of the nutritional value of staple food supplies; and in the accumulation of dangerous toxins in these food supplies.