116This paper provides brief theories for the formation and structure of emulsions, microemulsions, and dispersions. A few examples are provided to illustrate the principles involved. Thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities and factors affecting them are discussed from a practical standpoint.
Modern methods of analysis and tools available are discussed, with particular reference to formulations for agricultural active ingredients. Availability and use of safe and effective inert formulation ingredients is reviewed. More recent formulation techniques such as computer-aided experimental design and optimization procedures are reviewed.
Some of the recent trends and considerations in formulation development of liquid concentrates and factors that affect reformulation of existing active ingredients are discussed. A projection of the future trend regarding the status of liquid concentrates in the agricultural industry is presented.