Cultivars can be selected for traits that improve water use efficiency, and fertilizers and other nutrient sources also can be managed to optimize water use efficiency of a crop. Both cultivar selection and nutrient management impact water use efficiency by altering photosynthetic rate, yield, rooting characteristics, transpiration, or soil evaporation. In order to optimize water use efficiency, cultivar and nutrient decisions should be made jointly. This integrated approach will lead to improvements in water use efficiency, with an increase in productivity and profitability per unit water. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1–800–342–9678. E-mail address: [email protected]]