While much Canadian uranium comes from sulphide ores and thus entails processes that have environmental implications similar to those discussed in Chapter 5, the production of uranium has differences that are significant enough to warrant a separate chapter. Uranium mining is unique in that its purpose is the extraction and concentration of radioactive materials that can cause short-term and long-term damage to the tissues of humans and other organisms. While decisions on opening mines or changing production for other commodities depend largely on commodity market forces, decisions on uranium production cannot depend solely on price. Demand for power-generating capacities and the end uses of uranium products for nuclear power generation and for medical and industrial purposes must also be taken into account. Because waste rock, tailings, and the waste products of military or nuclear fuel use are radioactive, design and operating decisions will have very long-lasting ramifications.