The extrusion blow-molding of rigid PVC bottles began in Europe in the 1950s. It was an outgrowth of the development of the extrusion process for rigid PVC pipes, which itself was a product of the German wartime industry . This source of rigid PVC extrusion, and the later emergence of the blow-molding equipment industry in Europe,  examplified by LMP-Colombo machines, Blow-o-Matic in Denmark, and and later Johann Fischer, Kautex, and Bekum in Germany, and the shortlived Marrick process and equipment in England, provided the required technology for the rigid PVC bottle-blowing industry. From this beginning, France being the leader with the Sidel, Pont-a-Mousson, and HMS technologies, developed a myriad processes and machines. Major incentives for rigid PVC bottle blowing of drinking water, oil, and wine bottles, were created throughout the 1960s. This development matured fully with the biaxial orientation option in the 1970s.