ABSTRACT: This chapter addresses the challenges facing both public sector providers and private operators in providing adequate, reliable and sustainable water services. This includes both the realms of provider corruption and inefficiency and consumer non-payment and the cycle of uneconomic and inadequate water service that these foster. The chapter examines emerging business, legal and institutional models, such as public-private partnerships, in addressing these problems and in creating the ethical standards, and the legal and financial models, that can provide the basis for achieving these goals and managing the problems that hinder them.