ABSTRACT: This chapter takes a holistic view of the challenges involved in modern water and wastewater management. It argues for the inclusion of private business and industry in managing some of these challenges. It seeks to examine, from a standpoint that combines practical and ethical considerations, the relative roles and boundaries of the areas of activity that are appropriate for governments, business and civil society. In particular, it looks at how this kind of approach can be used to clarify questions about private ownership and management of water.