This chapter discusses the integration of mining with responsible consumption and production and rates it as a work in progress. It highlights the need to reduce adverse environmental and social impacts, not only from the mining and production of ores at individual sites, but also in transforming the systems and supply chains across the globe to sustainable patterns of consumption with increased material efficiency, looking towards a low-carbon circular economy. Current trends include the growing adoption of renewable energy in mining and minerals processing, better tailings and post-closure management, increased provenance and traceability through ‘responsible’ certification programs, design for circularity, through to a conceptualization of mining beyond processing terrestrial ores (or even from oceans and asteroids) to increased ‘urban mining’ of metals from scrap products and infrastructure and ultimately, business models providing metal-based services rather than commodity sales of ores and ingots. Partial progress against this sustainable development goal is being made, driven by investors, shareholders and societal pressure on mining companies and from supplier expectations of end-users of metals.