This chapter explores the topic of home gardening as one component of urban agriculture with a focus on addressing human health through improved nutrition. It aims to challenge the commonly held notion of home gardening as a hobby and pastime, which contributes negligibly to human health. The chapter discusses the case that through the production of fruits and vegetables, home gardens are uniquely equipped to provide nutrient-dense foods critical to human health. It provides a discussion of the health impacts of under- and overnutrition experienced in both developed and developing nations. The chapter discusses the nutrient-dense properties of fruits and vegetables and the evidence to support the health benefits of a diet high in fruits and vegetables. It addresses the potential health impact of soil contamination, given that urbanized soils are more likely to have elevated levels of heavy metals and other toxins.