Energy storage technology such as batteries and supercapacitors are authoritative power sources owing to their ease of maintenance, long cycle life, flexible power, and energy features. Recently, the sodium-ion battery (SIB) has had tremendous exposure due to its abundant availability in nature (2.6 wt. %), cost effectiveness, and similar chemical and electrochemical properties to the lithium-ion battery (LIB). However, SIBs are still suffering with low energy density and long cycle life, which impedes the wide applications and development of SIBs. Thus, it’s necessary to use suitable anode materials in order to obtain proper sodium storage potential, high reversible capacity, and the stable structural stability of SIBs. Consequently, in this chapter, it’s clearly discussed about different types of anode materials (carbon-based, transition-based metal oxides, alloy-based, organic-, and phosphorus-based metals) and its electrochemistry mechanism, problems, and its future prospects and challenges of this field are included.