The objective of this work is the study of medical image segmentation for pathological medical images. In our research, we consider various segmentation techniques, which are used universally to obtain the exact solution of the medical image segmentation. Medical image segmentation techniques are discussed in detail for future investigators to find an optimal solution. We have explored segmentation techniques followed by an experimental comparison of these methods based on their efficiency. They portray experimental results and charts through two parameters, APD and DIES, and comparison of their accuracy in segmenting medical images.