The major carotenoids of market interest are capsanthin, astaxanthin, ß-carotene, lutein, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. The main carotenoids of microalgae are astaxanthin, ß-carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, and fucoxanthin. Microalgal production of carotenoids have many advantages. In spite of the perceived advantages, the large scale production of carotenoids from microalgae is limited. F. Haque et al. reported intensified astaxanthin production using bioethanol wastewater streams as potential 'green' media to culture H. Microalgal chlorophyll and carotenoid contents are generally higher than those of plant sources. A. Hosikian et al. reviewed chlorophyll production from microalgae cultivation to chlorophyll fractionation and purification. The production of microalgal phycobiliproteins faces technological obstacles. M. Kuddus et al. discussed the sources and production of C-phycocyanin, techniques for extraction and purification, and potential industrial applications. Intense research has been carried out on improving the design of the culture system and optimizing the culture conditions to maximize biomass and pigment productions at low cost.